سنتز و بررسی خواص ریزساختاری، مکانیکی و زیست سازگاری داربست منیزیم – روی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه مهندسی مواد و متالورژی، دانشکده فنی مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج

چکیده

هدف از تحقیق حاضر سنتز و مطالعه ریزساختار و خواص مکانیکی داربست زیست تخریب پذیر Mg-Zn جهت کاربردهای ارتوپدی می باشد. بدین منظور، داربست های Mg-Zn حاوی  3 و 5 درصد وزنی Zn  با استفاده از ذرات اوره  به میزان 15،25 و 35 درصد حجمی توسط روش متالورژی پودر ساخته شدند و برای تعیین دمای بهینه تفجوشی، نمونه ها تحت عملیات حرارتی در دماهای مختلف 500، 550، 565  و 580 درجه سانتیگراد قرار گرفتند. سپس ترکیب شیمیایی، میکروساختار و خواص مکانیکی داربست های ساخته شده تحت بررسی قرار گرفت. مطابق نتایج، اندازه میانگین ماکروتخلخل و میکرو تخلخل های حاصل در داربست های ساخته شده به ترتیب در حدود 400-200 و کمتر از 100 میکرون می باشد. نتایج نشان داد که  تخلخل و حفرات موجود در نمونه ها به علت مناطق تمرکزدهنده تنش و کاهش سطح موثر قطعه در مقابل اعمال تنش خارجی، استحکام مکانیکی داربست ها را کاهش می دهند.همچنین با افزایش درصد Zn، از طریق مکانیزم استحکام دهی محلول جامد و پخشی، استحکام فشاری داربست های Mg-Zn  افزایش یافت. نتایج حاصل از آنالیز SEM  نیز نشان داد که با افزودن عنصر Zn ، ترکیبات بین فلزی Mg7Zn3 و MgZn می تواند تشکیل شود.                                   ... نتایج آزمون پلاریزاسیون نشان داد که با افزودن 5درصد وزنی Zn در مقایسه با نمونه های حاوی 3 درصد وزنی به علت تشکیل ترکیبات بین فلزی بیشتر، مقاومت به خوردگی کاهش یافت. مطابق نتایج آزمون ارزیابی سمیت سلولی، میزان زیست پذیری داربست های حاوی 3 درصد وزنی Zn، بالاتر از نمونه­های حاوی 5 درصد وزنی Zn بدست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Synthesis and study of microstructure, mechanical and biocompatibility properties of Mg-Zn scaffolds

نویسنده [English]

  • zahra Seyedraoufi
چکیده [English]

The aim of this research is to synthesize and study the microstructure and mechanical properties of biodegradable Mg-Zn scaffolds for orthopedic applications. For this purpose, Mg-Zn scaffolds containing 3 and 5 wt. % Zn were prepared using 15, 25 and 35 Vol% of urea by powder metallurgy and were subjected to heat treatment at different temperatures of 500, 550, 565, and 580 °C to determine the optimum sintering temperature. Then, the chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were investigated. According to the results, the average  diameter of macro- pores and micro- pores in the scaffolds are about 400-200 and less than 100 μm, respectively. The results showed that the compressive strength of Mg-Zn scaffolds increases with decreasing porosity amount. In fact, the porosity in the sample reduces the mechanical strength of the scaffold due to the stress concentrating areas and the reduction of the effective surface of scaffold against external stresses. Also, by increasing the Zn content, the strength of the Mg-Zn scaffold increases through the strength of the solid solution and dispersion strengthening. However, in all of the made scaffolds, the compressive strength is in the range of compressive strength of the human body's bone. The results of the SEM micrographs also showed that, by adding Zn, the intermetallic compounds Mg7Zn3 and MgZn could be formed. The results of polarization test showed that, by adding 5 wt.% of Zn in comparison with samples containing 3 wt%, due to the formation of more intermetallic compounds, the corrosion resistance decreased. According to the results of cytotoxicity measurement, the cell viability of scaffolds containing 3 wt% Zn was higher than those containing 5 wt% Zn.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Magnesium biodegradable scaffold
  • Zn
  • Mechanical Strength
  • Powder Metallurgy

[1] Capek, J., Vojtech, D., Properties of porous magnesium prepared by powder metallurgy, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2013, 33, 564–569.

[2] Ryan, G., Pandit, A., Panagiotis, D., Apatsidis, P., Fabrication methods of porous metals for use in orthopaedic applications, Journal of Biomaterials, 2006, 27, 2651-2670.

[3] Blitterswijk, C., Thomsen P., Tissue Engineering, Elsevier, Academic Press, 2008.

[2] Hut, D., Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering Bone and Cartilage, Journal of Biomaterials, 2000, 21, 2529-2543.

[4] Alvarez, K., Nakajima, H., Metallic Scaffold for Bone Regeneration, Journal of Materials, 2009, 2, 790-832.

[5] پارک، ج. بو. و  برانزینو، ج. د.، ترجمه رفیعی نیا، م. و  بنکدار، ش.،  بیومتریال ها: اصول و کاربردها، انتشارات دانشگاه امیرکبیر ، 1386.

[6] پارک، ج. بو. و لیکز، ر. اس، ترجمه فتحی، م.ح. و مرتضوی، و. س.، خواص و کاربرد پزشکی بیومواد فلزی، انتشارات ارکان، 1383.

[8] Temenoff, J.S., Mikos, A.G., Injectable Biodegradable Materials for Orthopedic Tissue Engineering, Journal of Biomaterials, 2002, 21, 2405-2412.

[9]Stiager, M.B., Piteak, A.M., Magnesium and it’s Alloys an Orthopedic Biomaterials, Journal of Biomaterials, 2007, 27, 1728-1734.

[10]Gu, X.N., A Rewiew on Magnesium Alloys as Biodegradable Materials, Journal of Materials Science China, 2010, 4 (2), 111-115.

[11] Yun, Y., Dong, Z., Yang, D., Schulz, M. N., Shanov, V., Biodegradable Mg Corrosion and Osteoblast Cell Culture Studies, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009, 29, 1814-1821.

[12] Witte, F., The History of Biodegradable Magnesium Implants: A Review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2010, 6, 1680-1692.

[13] Zhang, Sh., Li, J., Song, Y., Zhao, Ch., Zhang, X., Xie, Ch., Zhang, Y., Tao, H., He, Y., Jiang, Y., Bian, Y., In Vitro Degradation, Hemolysis and MC3T3 Cell Adhesion of Degradable Mg-Zn Alloy, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009,  29, 1907-1912.

[14] Sang, G., A Possible Biodegradable Magnesium Implant Material, Journal of Advanced Engineering Materials, 2007, 9(4), 298-302.

[15] Tan, L., Gong, M., Zheng, F., Zhang, B. Study on Cmpression Behavior of Porous Magnesium Used as Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold, Journal of Biomedical Mater, 2009, 4, 1-7.

[16] Willumeit, R., Fischer, j., Feyerabend, F., Hort, N., Bismayer, U., Heidrrach S., Mihailova, B., Chemical Surface Alternation of Biodegradable Magnesium Exposed to Corrosion Media, Journal of Acta biomaterialia, 2011, 7, 2704-2715.

[17] Hornberger, H., Virtanen, S., Boccaccini, A.R., Biomedical Coatings on Magnesium Alloys – A Review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2012, 8(7), 2442-2455.

[18] Wen, C., Guan, S., Peng L., Ren, Ch., Wang, X., Hu, Z., Characterization and Degradation Behavior of AZ31 Alloy Surface Modified by Bone-like Hydroxyapatite for Implant Applications, Journal of Applied Surface Science, 2009, 255, 6433–6438.

[19] Xin, Y., Hu, T., Chu, P.K., In Vitro Studies of Biomedical Magnesium Alloys in a Simulated Physiological Environment: a Review’, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2011, 7(4), 1452-9.

[20] Zhang, Sh., Li, J., Song, Y., Zhao, Ch., Zhang, X. Influence of Dicalcium Phosphate Dehydrate Coating on the in Vitro Degradation of Mg-Zn Alloy, Journal of Front Mater Science, 2011, 4(2), 116-119.

[21] Zhang, Ch. Y., Zeng, R. Ch., Liu, Ch. Long, Gao, J. Ch., Comparison of Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Mg–Al and Mg–Ca Alloys and Their Corrosion Behavior in Hank's Solution, Journal of Surface and Coatings Technology, 2010,  204, 3636–3640.

[22] Li, Z., Gu, X., lou, S., zheng, Y., The Development of Binary Mg-Ca Alloys for Use as Biodegradable Materials within Bone, Journal of Biomaterials, 2008,  29, 1329-1344.

[23] Wen, C.E., Yamada, Y., Shimojima, K., Chino, Y., Hosokawa, H., Mabuchi, M., Compressibility of Porous Magnesium Foam: Dependency on Porosity and Pore Size, Journal of Materials Letters, 2004, 58, 357-360.

[24] Gunde, P., High Strength Magnesium Alloys for Degradable Implant Applications, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A, 2010, 528, 1047-1054.

[25]Atrens, A., Lie, M., Abidin, N.I.Z., Corrosion Mechanism Appliciable to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 2011, 176, 1609-1636.

[26] Witte, F., Hort, N., Vogt, C., Cohen, S., Kianer, K.U., Willumeit, R., Feyerabend, F., Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Corrosion, Journal of Current Opinion in Solid State and Material Science, 2008,12, 63-72.

[27] Zhuang, H., Han, Y., Feng, A., 2008. Preparation, mechanical properties and in vitro Biodegradation of Porous Magnesium Scaffolds, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2011, 28, 1462–1466. 

[28] Dong-song, Y., Er-lin, Z., Song-yan, Z. Effect of Zn on Mechanical Property and Corrosion Property of Extruded Mg-Zn-Mn Alloy, Journal of Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2008, 18, 763-768.

[29] Zhang, E., Yin, D., Xu, L., Yang, L., Yang, K., Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties and Biocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Mn Alloys for Biomedical Application, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009, 29, 987-993.

[30] Wen, C.E., Mabuchi, M., Yamada, Y., Shimojima, K., Chino, Y., Asahina, T., Processing of Biocompatible Porous Ti and Mg, Journal of Scripta Materialia, 2001, 45, 1147-1153.

[31] Deng, Ch. J., Wong, M.L., Formation of MgO and Mg–Zn Intermetallics in an Mg-Based Composite by in Situ Reactions, Journal of Composites: Part A, 2005, 36, 551–557.

[32] Krawiec, H., Stanek, S., Vignal, V., Lelito, J., Suchy, J. S., The Use of Microcapillary Techniques to Study the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy at the Microscale, Journal of Corrosion Science, 2011, 53, 3108-3113.

 [33] Hornberger, H., Virtanen, S., Boccaccini, A.R., Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys – A review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2012, 8, 2442-2455.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 [1] Capek, J., Vojtech, D., Properties of porous magnesium prepared by powder metallurgy, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2013, 33, 564–569.

[2] Ryan, G., Pandit, A., Panagiotis, D., Apatsidis, P., Fabrication methods of porous metals for use in orthopaedic applications, Journal of Biomaterials, 2006, 27, 2651-2670.

[3] Blitterswijk, C., Thomsen P., Tissue Engineering, Elsevier, Academic Press, 2008.

[2] Hut, D., Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering Bone and Cartilage, Journal of Biomaterials, 2000, 21, 2529-2543.

[4] Alvarez, K., Nakajima, H., Metallic Scaffold for Bone Regeneration, Journal of Materials, 2009, 2, 790-832.

[5] پارک، ج. بو. و  برانزینو، ج. د.، ترجمه رفیعی نیا، م. و  بنکدار، ش.،  بیومتریال ها: اصول و کاربردها، انتشارات دانشگاه امیرکبیر ، 1386.

[6] پارک، ج. بو. و لیکز، ر. اس، ترجمه فتحی، م.ح. و مرتضوی، و. س.، خواص و کاربرد پزشکی بیومواد فلزی، انتشارات ارکان، 1383.

[8] Temenoff, J.S., Mikos, A.G., Injectable Biodegradable Materials for Orthopedic Tissue Engineering, Journal of Biomaterials, 2002, 21, 2405-2412.

[9]Stiager, M.B., Piteak, A.M., Magnesium and it’s Alloys an Orthopedic Biomaterials, Journal of Biomaterials, 2007, 27, 1728-1734.

[10]Gu, X.N., A Rewiew on Magnesium Alloys as Biodegradable Materials, Journal of Materials Science China, 2010, 4 (2), 111-115.

[11] Yun, Y., Dong, Z., Yang, D., Schulz, M. N., Shanov, V., Biodegradable Mg Corrosion and Osteoblast Cell Culture Studies, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009, 29, 1814-1821.

[12] Witte, F., The History of Biodegradable Magnesium Implants: A Review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2010, 6, 1680-1692.

[13] Zhang, Sh., Li, J., Song, Y., Zhao, Ch., Zhang, X., Xie, Ch., Zhang, Y., Tao, H., He, Y., Jiang, Y., Bian, Y., In Vitro Degradation, Hemolysis and MC3T3 Cell Adhesion of Degradable Mg-Zn Alloy, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009,  29, 1907-1912.

[14] Sang, G., A Possible Biodegradable Magnesium Implant Material, Journal of Advanced Engineering Materials, 2007, 9(4), 298-302.

[15] Tan, L., Gong, M., Zheng, F., Zhang, B. Study on Cmpression Behavior of Porous Magnesium Used as Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold, Journal of Biomedical Mater, 2009, 4, 1-7.

[16] Willumeit, R., Fischer, j., Feyerabend, F., Hort, N., Bismayer, U., Heidrrach S., Mihailova, B., Chemical Surface Alternation of Biodegradable Magnesium Exposed to Corrosion Media, Journal of Acta biomaterialia, 2011, 7, 2704-2715.

[17] Hornberger, H., Virtanen, S., Boccaccini, A.R., Biomedical Coatings on Magnesium Alloys – A Review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2012, 8(7), 2442-2455.

[18] Wen, C., Guan, S., Peng L., Ren, Ch., Wang, X., Hu, Z., Characterization and Degradation Behavior of AZ31 Alloy Surface Modified by Bone-like Hydroxyapatite for Implant Applications, Journal of Applied Surface Science, 2009, 255, 6433–6438.

[19] Xin, Y., Hu, T., Chu, P.K., In Vitro Studies of Biomedical Magnesium Alloys in a Simulated Physiological Environment: a Review’, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2011, 7(4), 1452-9.

[20] Zhang, Sh., Li, J., Song, Y., Zhao, Ch., Zhang, X. Influence of Dicalcium Phosphate Dehydrate Coating on the in Vitro Degradation of Mg-Zn Alloy, Journal of Front Mater Science, 2011, 4(2), 116-119.

[21] Zhang, Ch. Y., Zeng, R. Ch., Liu, Ch. Long, Gao, J. Ch., Comparison of Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Mg–Al and Mg–Ca Alloys and Their Corrosion Behavior in Hank's Solution, Journal of Surface and Coatings Technology, 2010,  204, 3636–3640.

[22] Li, Z., Gu, X., lou, S., zheng, Y., The Development of Binary Mg-Ca Alloys for Use as Biodegradable Materials within Bone, Journal of Biomaterials, 2008,  29, 1329-1344.

[23] Wen, C.E., Yamada, Y., Shimojima, K., Chino, Y., Hosokawa, H., Mabuchi, M., Compressibility of Porous Magnesium Foam: Dependency on Porosity and Pore Size, Journal of Materials Letters, 2004, 58, 357-360.

[24] Gunde, P., High Strength Magnesium Alloys for Degradable Implant Applications, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A, 2010, 528, 1047-1054.

[25]Atrens, A., Lie, M., Abidin, N.I.Z., Corrosion Mechanism Appliciable to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 2011, 176, 1609-1636.

[26] Witte, F., Hort, N., Vogt, C., Cohen, S., Kianer, K.U., Willumeit, R., Feyerabend, F., Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Corrosion, Journal of Current Opinion in Solid State and Material Science, 2008,12, 63-72.

[27] Zhuang, H., Han, Y., Feng, A., 2008. Preparation, mechanical properties and in vitro Biodegradation of Porous Magnesium Scaffolds, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2011, 28, 1462–1466. 

[28] Dong-song, Y., Er-lin, Z., Song-yan, Z. Effect of Zn on Mechanical Property and Corrosion Property of Extruded Mg-Zn-Mn Alloy, Journal of Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2008, 18, 763-768.

[29] Zhang, E., Yin, D., Xu, L., Yang, L., Yang, K., Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties and Biocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Mn Alloys for Biomedical Application, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009, 29, 987-993.

[30] Wen, C.E., Mabuchi, M., Yamada, Y., Shimojima, K., Chino, Y., Asahina, T., Processing of Biocompatible Porous Ti and Mg, Journal of Scripta Materialia, 2001, 45, 1147-1153.

[31] Deng, Ch. J., Wong, M.L., Formation of MgO and Mg–Zn Intermetallics in an Mg-Based Composite by in Situ Reactions, Journal of Composites: Part A, 2005, 36, 551–557.

[32] Krawiec, H., Stanek, S., Vignal, V., Lelito, J., Suchy, J. S., The Use of Microcapillary Techniques to Study the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy at the Microscale, Journal of Corrosion Science, 2011, 53, 3108-3113.

 [33] Hornberger, H., Virtanen, S., Boccaccini, A.R., Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys – A review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2012, 8, 2442-2455.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                         

 

[1] Capek, J., Vojtech, D., Properties of porous magnesium prepared by powder metallurgy, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2013, 33, 564–569.

[2] Ryan, G., Pandit, A., Panagiotis, D., Apatsidis, P., Fabrication methods of porous metals for use in orthopaedic applications, Journal of Biomaterials, 2006, 27, 2651-2670.

[3] Blitterswijk, C., Thomsen P., Tissue Engineering, Elsevier, Academic Press, 2008.

[2] Hut, D., Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering Bone and Cartilage, Journal of Biomaterials, 2000, 21, 2529-2543.

[4] Alvarez, K., Nakajima, H., Metallic Scaffold for Bone Regeneration, Journal of Materials, 2009, 2, 790-832.

[5] پارک، ج. بو. و  برانزینو، ج. د.، ترجمه رفیعی نیا، م. و  بنکدار، ش.،  بیومتریال ها: اصول و کاربردها، انتشارات دانشگاه امیرکبیر ، 1386.

[6] پارک، ج. بو. و لیکز، ر. اس، ترجمه فتحی، م.ح. و مرتضوی، و. س.، خواص و کاربرد پزشکی بیومواد فلزی، انتشارات ارکان، 1383.

[8] Temenoff, J.S., Mikos, A.G., Injectable Biodegradable Materials for Orthopedic Tissue Engineering, Journal of Biomaterials, 2002, 21, 2405-2412.

[9]Stiager, M.B., Piteak, A.M., Magnesium and it’s Alloys an Orthopedic Biomaterials, Journal of Biomaterials, 2007, 27, 1728-1734.

[10]Gu, X.N., A Rewiew on Magnesium Alloys as Biodegradable Materials, Journal of Materials Science China, 2010, 4 (2), 111-115.

[11] Yun, Y., Dong, Z., Yang, D., Schulz, M. N., Shanov, V., Biodegradable Mg Corrosion and Osteoblast Cell Culture Studies, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009, 29, 1814-1821.

[12] Witte, F., The History of Biodegradable Magnesium Implants: A Review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2010, 6, 1680-1692.

[13] Zhang, Sh., Li, J., Song, Y., Zhao, Ch., Zhang, X., Xie, Ch., Zhang, Y., Tao, H., He, Y., Jiang, Y., Bian, Y., In Vitro Degradation, Hemolysis and MC3T3 Cell Adhesion of Degradable Mg-Zn Alloy, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009,  29, 1907-1912.

[14] Sang, G., A Possible Biodegradable Magnesium Implant Material, Journal of Advanced Engineering Materials, 2007, 9(4), 298-302.

[15] Tan, L., Gong, M., Zheng, F., Zhang, B. Study on Cmpression Behavior of Porous Magnesium Used as Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold, Journal of Biomedical Mater, 2009, 4, 1-7.

[16] Willumeit, R., Fischer, j., Feyerabend, F., Hort, N., Bismayer, U., Heidrrach S., Mihailova, B., Chemical Surface Alternation of Biodegradable Magnesium Exposed to Corrosion Media, Journal of Acta biomaterialia, 2011, 7, 2704-2715.

[17] Hornberger, H., Virtanen, S., Boccaccini, A.R., Biomedical Coatings on Magnesium Alloys – A Review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2012, 8(7), 2442-2455.

[18] Wen, C., Guan, S., Peng L., Ren, Ch., Wang, X., Hu, Z., Characterization and Degradation Behavior of AZ31 Alloy Surface Modified by Bone-like Hydroxyapatite for Implant Applications, Journal of Applied Surface Science, 2009, 255, 6433–6438.

[19] Xin, Y., Hu, T., Chu, P.K., In Vitro Studies of Biomedical Magnesium Alloys in a Simulated Physiological Environment: a Review’, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2011, 7(4), 1452-9.

[20] Zhang, Sh., Li, J., Song, Y., Zhao, Ch., Zhang, X. Influence of Dicalcium Phosphate Dehydrate Coating on the in Vitro Degradation of Mg-Zn Alloy, Journal of Front Mater Science, 2011, 4(2), 116-119.

[21] Zhang, Ch. Y., Zeng, R. Ch., Liu, Ch. Long, Gao, J. Ch., Comparison of Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Mg–Al and Mg–Ca Alloys and Their Corrosion Behavior in Hank's Solution, Journal of Surface and Coatings Technology, 2010,  204, 3636–3640.

[22] Li, Z., Gu, X., lou, S., zheng, Y., The Development of Binary Mg-Ca Alloys for Use as Biodegradable Materials within Bone, Journal of Biomaterials, 2008,  29, 1329-1344.

[23] Wen, C.E., Yamada, Y., Shimojima, K., Chino, Y., Hosokawa, H., Mabuchi, M., Compressibility of Porous Magnesium Foam: Dependency on Porosity and Pore Size, Journal of Materials Letters, 2004, 58, 357-360.

[24] Gunde, P., High Strength Magnesium Alloys for Degradable Implant Applications, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A, 2010, 528, 1047-1054.

[25]Atrens, A., Lie, M., Abidin, N.I.Z., Corrosion Mechanism Appliciable to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering B, 2011, 176, 1609-1636.

[26] Witte, F., Hort, N., Vogt, C., Cohen, S., Kianer, K.U., Willumeit, R., Feyerabend, F., Degradable Biomaterials Based on Magnesium Corrosion, Journal of Current Opinion in Solid State and Material Science, 2008,12, 63-72.

[27] Zhuang, H., Han, Y., Feng, A., 2008. Preparation, mechanical properties and in vitro Biodegradation of Porous Magnesium Scaffolds, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2011, 28, 1462–1466. 

[28] Dong-song, Y., Er-lin, Z., Song-yan, Z. Effect of Zn on Mechanical Property and Corrosion Property of Extruded Mg-Zn-Mn Alloy, Journal of Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2008, 18, 763-768.

[29] Zhang, E., Yin, D., Xu, L., Yang, L., Yang, K., Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties and Biocompatibility of Mg–Zn–Mn Alloys for Biomedical Application, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering C, 2009, 29, 987-993.

[30] Wen, C.E., Mabuchi, M., Yamada, Y., Shimojima, K., Chino, Y., Asahina, T., Processing of Biocompatible Porous Ti and Mg, Journal of Scripta Materialia, 2001, 45, 1147-1153.

[31] Deng, Ch. J., Wong, M.L., Formation of MgO and Mg–Zn Intermetallics in an Mg-Based Composite by in Situ Reactions, Journal of Composites: Part A, 2005, 36, 551–557.

[32] Krawiec, H., Stanek, S., Vignal, V., Lelito, J., Suchy, J. S., The Use of Microcapillary Techniques to Study the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy at the Microscale, Journal of Corrosion Science, 2011, 53, 3108-3113.

 [33] Hornberger, H., Virtanen, S., Boccaccini, A.R., Biomedical coatings on magnesium alloys – A review, Journal of Acta Biomaterialia, 2012, 8, 2442-2455.